Radiochemical dating definitions, solar Neutrinos and Other Solar Oddities
However, if fusion were not operative for some reason, no equilibrium would be reached, and no pattern should be observed. Lithium and beryllium are two light elements, that are both estimated to have been part of the sun's original chemical composition at certain low concentrations. But the fact that solar neutrinos from different fusion chains have different energy, may cause them to arrive at the earth at different points in their oscillation cycles.
This oscillation distance scale depends on the mass difference between the neutrinos, and on the energy of the neutrinos. Nevertheless, an independent check would be nice. The most solid non-solar neutrino-oscillation result to date comes from Super-Kamiokande.
Unfortunately, when the results from Davis et al subsequently came in, they disagreed with the prediction. The first one refers directly to the classical Kelvin-Helmholtz theory of the sun shining through gravitational contraction. Mu- or tau-neutrinos from the sun have to be oscillation-converted electron-neutrinos, since no such neutrinos are produced in the sun. On one hand, the number of electron neutrinos remains too low, same as the other experiments see.
The second line is based on a supposed change in the measured diameter of the sun. We have today a coherent picture of the sun's internal structure and function, supported by several independent lines of evidence. There is, however, plenty of feedback in the earth's climate system, both positive and negative. It would therefore be natural to expect similar mixing effects among leptons. Solar solution or neutrino solution?
Solar Neutrinos and Other Solar Oddities
Painless and straightforward, but not exciting unless there's something funny with the new neutrino mass, like Ehrlich's proposal of a tachyon neutrino. In other words, neutrinos appear to be converted from one flavour to another en route, and arrive as a mixture of flavours. Therefore creationists should no longer invoke the missing neutrino problem to deny that fusion is the primary source of energy for the sun.
The last two points require thermal timescales, on the order of the Kelvin-Helmholtz cooling timescale tens of millions of years mentioned in the previous section, to attain equilibrium. Yet another range is probed in accelerator experiments, where high-energy neutrinos are created at particle accelerators, and allowed to travel for some distance. After twenty million years, all large stars should be gone, if they had been created at the same time as the sun. The formation of life is usually imaged in terms of Darwin's classical warm pond of organic soup, which requires a friendly climate. Other authors have made similar calculations, with similar conclusions, women for dating e.
Interacting with an electron or a nucleus, and getting converted to the corresponding charged lepton electron, muon, or tau. These observables, together with the assumption that physics as we know it applies also in the interior, are sufficient to calculate in considerable detail what goes on inside the sun as well.
However, Faulkner's argument is less than perfectly compelling, for several reasons. Living organisms, too, started converting carbon dioxide into oxygen and organic matter, substantially decreasing the greenhouse effect as soon as photosynthesis got going. Solar neutrino problems Neutrinos are elusive particles, that are emitted in a variety of nuclear reactions and decays. This process can be used to calculate the age of a star.
This is experimentally feasible for neutrinos with moderate to high kinetic energy. Non-standard neutrino emission spectra, or other beta decay oddities. It has been doing so since time immemorial, with no notable changes.
Unraveling all the various feedback effects is a thriving research industry today, dedicated to understanding the threat of global warming, and what needs to be done about it. Kamiokande recently enlarged and upgraded, and renamed to Super-Kamiokande. Or, it may be a superposition of the three family flavors, mixed in some proportions. Still, Davies admits that some fusion is taking place, producing those neutrinos that we do see. Neutrinos and solar fusion Fusion is the only known source of energy that can keep the sun going for billions of years.
Quarks are constituents of protons and neutrons, and need not worry us further in this context. There is strong evidence that the apparent solar neutrino deficit is due to neutrino oscillations, and not to any shortcomings of the solar fusion model. There is a fair body of evidence that the atmosphere of the early earth was quite different from the nitrogen-oxygen mix that we're breathing today. The climate before life got started is quite irrelevant, and so are any luminosity changes before that time.
What is directly observable are the surface conditions, and the total mass and luminosity. With solar neutrinos, the distance is known, million kilometers, and the energy is known. If you play whist, the suits recognized in that game as pure suits may in a quantum world be different from those recognized as pure suits in poker.
While life may conceivably have formed underneath a thick ice cover, the fossil record indicates the presence of an ice-free surface within a few hundred million years from the beginning. Their measurements thus implied that either the standard solar model was wrong, or the standard model of particle physics and thus neutrino behavior was wrong. Wolfgang Pauli proposed to explain this discrepancy by postulating that an additional, invisible particle was emitted along with the electron, carrying away the missing energy and momentum.
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